Smaller and reduced

Weekly challenge 257 — 19 February 2024

Week 257 - 19 Feb 2024

Task 2

Given a matrix M, check whether the matrix is in reduced row echelon form. A matrix must have the following properties to be in reduced row echelon form:

- If a row does not consist entirely of zeros, then the first nonzero number in the row is a 1. We call this the leading 1.
- If there are any rows that consist entirely of zeros, then they are grouped together at the bottom of the matrix.
- In any two successive rows that do not consist entirely of zeros, the leading 1 in the lower row occurs farther to the right than the leading 1 in the higher row.
- Each column that contains a leading 1 has zeros everywhere else in that column.

For example:

```
[[1,0,0,1],
[0,1,0,2],
[0,0,1,3]]
```

The above matrix is in reduced row echelon form since the first nonzero number in each row is a 1, leading 1s in each successive row are farther to the right, and above and below each leading 1 there are only zeros.

For more information check out this Wikipedia article.

Example 1Input: $M = [ [1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0] ] Output: 0Example 2Input: $M = [ [0, 1,-2, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 1, 3], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] ] Output: 1Example 3Input: $M = [ [1, 0, 0, 4], [0, 1, 0, 7], [0, 0, 1,-1] ] Output: 1Example 4Input: $M = [ [0, 1,-2, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 1, 3], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] ] Output: 0Example 5Input: $M = [ [0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0] ] Output: 0Example 6Input: $M = [ [4, 0, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0, 7], [0, 0, 1,-1] ] Output: 0

This is an interesting task. My first mistake was to read the Wikipedia article, which led me to suspect that we were going to be asked to transform a matrix into this rather obscure form. Thankfully though, when I re-read the task, I saw that we are merely being asked to confirm that a given matrix is already in reduced row echelon form. Phew!

I am taking it as assumed that the 4 conditions listed by Mr Moradi are indeed necessary and sufficient to guarantee the required form.

My first thought was to examine each cell of the matrix once, and to determine whether the content of the cell was compliant with the 4 rules. I don't doubt that this is a possible approach, but given that the compliance of a single cell can depend on many, or even all, of the other cells I could see that being a complex calculation and perhps one that would be hard to debug.

I therefore chose to examine each rule in turn, checking that the matrix as a whole complies, or if not, I return 0 and a brief explanation of the reason for non-compliance. I think that makes the logic of my solution clearer even though the rather opaque Perl nomenclature for multidimensional arrays makes the code slightly hard to take in at a glance.

My approach has the advantage that the test of each rule can take advantage of knowing that the matrix complies with the preceding ones. For example, tests 1 to 3 ensure that all the rows (other than the all-zero rows at the bottom) have a leading 1 and that all the cells beneath these leading 1s are zero. So test 4 needs only to check that all the cells above the leading 1s are zero.

The other advantage of my approach is that it gives the right answers for the 6 given examples, and I have of course also tested that it does so for a wide range of other edge cases.

#!/usr/bin/perl # Blog: http://ccgi.campbellsmiths.force9.co.uk/challenge use v5.26; # The Weekly Challenge - 2024-02-19 use utf8; # Week 257 - task 2 - Reduced row echelon use warnings; # Peter Campbell Smith binmode STDOUT, ':utf8'; reduced_row_echelon([[1, 1, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0]]); reduced_row_echelon([[0, 1,-2, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 1, 3], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]); reduced_row_echelon([[1, 0, 0, 4], [0, 1, 0, 7], [0, 0, 1,-1]]); reduced_row_echelon([[0, 1,-2, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 1, 3], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]); reduced_row_echelon([[0, 1, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]]); reduced_row_echelon([[4, 0, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0, 7], [0, 0, 1,-1]]); sub reduced_row_echelon { my ($M, $result, $row, $cell, $fnz, @zero_rows, $last_row, $row_no, $z, $col_no, $prev_col_no, $this_row_no, $rows); $M = shift; print_matrix(qq(\nInput: [), $M); $result = 1; # 1. If a row does not consist entirely of zeros, # then the first nonzero number in the row is a 1. # We call this the leading 1. ROW1: for $row_no (0 .. @$M - 1) { $row = $M->[$row_no]; undef $fnz; CELL1: for $cell (@$row) { next CELL1 unless $cell; # find first non-zero cell in each row and check it's 1 $fnz = $cell if $cell != 0; if ($fnz == 1) { next ROW1; } else { say qq[Output: 0 - row $row_no breaks rule 1 (rows numbered from 0)]; return; } } } # 2. If there are any rows that consist entirely of # zeros, then they are grouped together at the bottom # of the matrix. $rows = @$M; @zero_rows = (); ROW2: for $row_no (0 .. $rows - 1) { $row = $M->[$row_no]; CELL2: for $cell (@$row) { next ROW2 if $cell != 0; } push @zero_rows, $row_no; } # check the all-zero rows are all at the bottom for $z (@zero_rows) { if ($z < $rows - @zero_rows) { say qq[Output: 0 - row $z breaks rule 2 (rows numbered from 0)]; return; } } # 3. In any two successive rows that do not consist entirely of zeros, # the leading 1 in the lower row occurs farther to the right than # the leading 1 in the higher row. $prev_col_no = -1; ROW3: for $row_no (0 .. $rows - 1 - @zero_rows) { $row = $M->[$row_no]; CELL3: for $col_no (0 .. @$row - 1) { $cell = $M->[$row_no]->[$col_no]; if ($cell == 1) { # check that the 1 is to the right of the preceding 1 if ($col_no <= $prev_col_no) { say qq[Output: 0 - row $row_no breaks rule 3 (rows numbered from 0)]; return; } else { $prev_col_no = $col_no; next ROW3; } } } } # 4. Each column that contains a leading 1 has zeros everywhere else # in that column. ROW4: for $row_no (1 .. @$M - 1 - @zero_rows) { CELL4: for $col_no (0 .. @$row) { $cell = $cell = $M->[$row_no]->[$col_no]; next CELL4 unless $cell; # check the rows above this 1 are all zero for $this_row_no (0 .. $row_no - 1) { if ($M->[$this_row_no]->[$col_no] != 0) { say qq[Output: 0 - column $col_no breaks rule 4 (columns numbered from 0)]; return; } } next ROW4; } } say qq[Output: 1 - matrix is in reduced row echelon form]; } sub print_matrix { my ($legend, $matrix, $j); # format rows of matrix ($legend, $matrix) = @_; for $j (0 .. @$matrix - 1) { say qq[$legend] . join(', ', @{$matrix->[$j]}) . qq(]); $legend = ' ['; } }

Input: [1, 1, 0] [0, 1, 0] [0, 0, 0] Output: 0 - column 1 breaks rule 4 (columns numbered from 0) Input: [0, 1, -2, 0, 1] [0, 0, 0, 1, 3] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] Output: 1 - matrix is in reduced row echelon form Input: [1, 0, 0, 4] [0, 1, 0, 7] [0, 0, 1, -1] Output: 1 - matrix is in reduced row echelon form Input: [0, 1, -2, 0, 1] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0, 1, 3] [0, 0, 0, 0, 0] Output: 0 - row 1 breaks rule 2 (rows numbered from 0) Input: [0, 1, 0] [1, 0, 0] [0, 0, 0] Output: 0 - row 1 breaks rule 3 (rows numbered from 0) Input: [4, 0, 0, 0] [0, 1, 0, 7] [0, 0, 1, -1] Output: 0 - row 0 breaks rule 1 (rows numbered from 0)

Peter Campbell Smith is hereby placed in the public domain